General Ulysses S Grant reverses his ailing fortunes at Vicksburg, Mississippi, risking separation from his supply lines in order to exploit a Confederate vulnerability. The arrival of draft officers in New York City spurs rioting.
American Battlefield Trust Store. The survey in the South Atlantic States also showed a surprising result; in those states the name Confederate War was slightly more common than War Between the States. Rhodes, John Ford Slavery In America Slavery in America started in the early 17th Century with most slaves coming from Africa and being used in agriculture production. However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty.
In the wake of the Emancipation Proclamation, tensions rise amongst the urban poor in the North as they fear competition for work when the newly freed slaves migrate. There is also dislike about the war being centred on abolition instead of Union preservation.
Working-class and mostly Irish men in New York, already frustrated with a severe fall in wages, refuse to be drafted to fight and three days of violent protest break out, particularly targeting black citizens and Republican newspapers. Troops from Gettysburg are sent to the city to restore order. Lincoln arrives at Gettysburg to speak at the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg war dead. The speech is only two minutes long, makes strong reference to the language of the Declaration of Independence and emphasises the unity of the nation.
Later that year, Lincoln offers amnesty to Confederate soldiers who will pledge loyalty to the Union.
Lincoln is re-elected carrying the electoral college vote and a slim majority of the popular vote. Union forces capture Fort Fisher in North Carolina, strengthening a Union blockade which has caused devastating food and clothing shortages in the South. Laws against conspiracy are tightened and habeas corpus suspended in order to stop Confederate desertions; Jefferson Davis even makes a desperate bid to arm the slaves which is rejected by his Congress.
This marks the effective end of the Civil War.
In an attempt to throw the Union into electoral chaos, a group of Confederate sympathisers from Maryland plot to assassinate President Lincoln, his Vice-President and Secretary of War. Lincoln is shot in his box at the Ford Theatre in Washington D. His secretaries escape a similar fate. The conspirators are arrested and hanged. Andrew Johnson becomes President.
After a great deal of political wrangling, the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery is ratified. Update your account Welcome.
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Timeline of the American Civil War. Elsewhere on our websites. What's On Exhibitions, live events and downloads. Newsletter Latest events - register free online. Online Shop Buy books and more from us now. Mobile app For iPhone, iPad and Android. Fine art prints From our collections. Events farther west are considered to have occurred in the Trans-Mississippi Theater and the Far West. The first inland clash between significant bodies of troops occurred on the morning of June 3, , when 3, Union volunteers surprised Confederates at Philippi in West Virginia. Lasting less than half an hour, the affair would barely qualify as a skirmish later in the war, but the Union victory there and subsequent ones in the region elevated the reputation of Major General George B.
McClellan, commander of the Department of the Ohio. The first real battle took place July 21, , on the hills around Bull Run creek outside Manassas, Virginia, a railroad junction some 30 miles south of the Northern capital at Washington City Washington, D.
During the war, the North named battles for the nearest body of water, and the South used the name of the nearest town. The Union army made progress early in the battle, but Confederate reinforcements arrived late in the day from the Shenandoah Valley and routed the Federals. The unfortunate Union commander, Irvin McDowell, was made the scapegoat and was replaced with an officer who had some victories to his credit: McClellan. On September 10 a Union victory at Carnifax Ferry in the Big Kanawha Valley of West Virginia virtually ended Confederate control in most of the western counties, although there would be raids and guerrilla warfare there.
A successful naval invasion of North Carolina took place in August. The Western Theater saw only minor skirmishing.
Kentucky was attempting to remain neutral and had vowed to take sides against whichever side first moved troops into it. That was the Confederacy, which felt compelled to establish Mississippi River forts and establish camps within the state to repel any attempted Union move south. The Union commander, Nathaniel Lyon, was killed, the first Federal general to die in action during the war. Bee at First Manassas. The year saw the first clash between ironclad warships, in the Battle of Hampton Roads.
Lincoln announced his Emancipation Proclamation. Lee, who took command of the main Confederate army.
Lincoln would be hard-pressed to find a commander Lee could not out-general. Farther south along the Atlantic Coast, Federals captured territory in North and South Carolina and Georgia, but lost a chance to shorten the war when they were turned back at the Battle of Secessionville, South Carolina. In the Western Theater, Union forces made deep penetrations into Dixie, beginning the year along the Ohio River and finishing it in control of Middle and West Tennessee, with outposts in Mississippi. Even New Orleans was under the Stars and Stripes again.
Beyond the Mississippi, initial Confederate successes in New Mexico territory were nullified by a defeat at Glorietta Pass. Texans lynched 50 Unionists in what became known as the Great Hanging at Gainesville and attacked German immigrants trying to leave the state, executing nine of the wounded after the Battle of the Nueces. Three hundred Sioux were sentenced to hang, but Lincoln cut that number to 38—still the largest mass execution in U.
September saw simultaneous Confederate invasions into Maryland and Kentucky in September. Neither, however, was long lived. The year ended—and the new year would begin—with another bloodbath, on the banks of Stones River outside Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Overall, the scales were still nearly balanced between the two sides in their struggle to restore the Union or to establish a Southern Confederacy. The tide of war shifted noticeably in favor of the Union in , despite a brilliant victory by Robert E. Lee then suffered a major defeat at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in early July.
The two antagonists met again in November in a confused, inconclusive affair known as the Mine Run Campaign. On April 17, the Army of the Potomac, under yet another commander, Maj. In response, Lee divided his force, leaving part of it to guard the river at Fredericksburg. On April 30, Hooker and Lee collided near a mansion called Chancellorsville in a densely thicketed area of woods known as The Wilderness.
He died May Lee, learning the Federals had captured Fredericksburg, divided his force again and defeated them at Salem Church. Hooker gave up the campaign and withdrew on the night of May 5—6. Read more about the Battle of Chancellorsville. Grant on July 4 after a day siege. Grant was placed in command of all Western armies, a prelude to an even greater promotion that would come the following spring.
Two massacres marked Patrick E. Connor attacked the camp of Chief Bear Hunter on January Quantrill sacked and burned Lawrence, Kansas, a center for pro-Union, anti-slavery Jayhawkers and Redlegs, killing — men and boys. His men encountered the Army of the Potomac, now under George Gordon Meade, at a crossroads town in southeastern Pennsylvania on July 1. Capturing the town but failing to take the high ground around it, Lee assailed the Union flanks the next day.
On July 3, Lee made perhaps his greatest mistake of the war, ordering a frontal attack across open ground against the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. Read more about the Battle Of Gettysburg. The year also saw an event unique in American history. Counties of western Virginia had refused to leave the Union when the state seceded in At the end of , both sides still had significant forces, and the Confederates enjoyed good defensive terrain in Virginia and North Georgia.
If they could inflict enough losses on their Northern opponents, they might win at the ballot box what they could not on the field of battle: Lincoln was vulnerable and in the elections might be replaced by a Democrat who would make peace with the Confederacy. Grant, who was put in charge of all Union armies in March Three days later, it collided with Robert E. There was no such clear-cut outcome this time. Lee anticipated the move, and the two armies tore at each other again for two weeks in May around Spotsylvania Courthouse.
The siege of Richmond and Petersburg had begun. Read more about the Battle Of The Wilderness. On July 30, the Union exploded a mine beneath a portion of the Confederate works around Petersburg. A tardy advance by a large number of Union soldiers into the foot-deep crater it created allowed the Southerners time to recover. They poured fired into the densely packed Federals; eventually, the fighting was hand-to-hand. Angered by the blast and the presence of black troops, the Confederates gave no quarter and the Battle of the Crater resulted in 4, Union casualties for no gain.
Read more about the Battle Of Petersburg.
After a victory at Lynchburg in June, Jubal A. A desperate delaying action on July 9 at Monocacy, Maryland, by an outnumbered force under Lew Wallace—the future author of Ben Hur—bought the capital time to prepare. Lincoln came out to watch the fighting. When Grant went east his friend and subordinate, William Tecumseh Sherman , took command of the armies of the Tennessee and the Cumberland at Chattanooga.