Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels (Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering)

Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels
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Some common properties of liquid fuels are that they are easy to transport, and that can be handled easily. Also they are relatively easy to use for all engineering applications, and home use.

biofuels vs fossil fuels

Fuels like kerosene are rationed in some countries, for example available in government subsidized shops in India for home use. Conventional diesel is similar to gasoline in that it is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking, heating, and small engines. Natural gas , composed chiefly of methane , can only exist as a liquid at very low temperatures regardless of pressure , which limits its direct use as a liquid fuel in most applications.

LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane , both of which are easily compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions. It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas CNG , but is denser than air, does not burn as cleanly, and is much more easily compressed. Commonly used for cooking and space heating, LP gas and compressed propane are seeing increased use in motorized vehicles; propane is the third most commonly used motor fuel globally. Fuel gas is any one of a number of fuels that are gaseous under ordinary conditions. Many fuel gases are composed of hydrocarbons such as methane or propane , hydrogen , carbon monoxide , or mixtures thereof.

Such gases are sources of potential heat energy or light energy that can be readily transmitted and distributed through pipes from the point of origin directly to the place of consumption. Fuel gas is contrasted with liquid fuels and from solid fuels , though some fuel gases are liquefied for storage or transport. While their gaseous nature can be advantageous, avoiding the difficulty of transporting solid fuel and the dangers of spillage inherent in liquid fuels, it can also be dangerous.

It is possible for a fuel gas to be undetected and collect in certain areas, leading to the risk of a gas explosion. For this reason, odorizers are added to most fuel gases so that they may be detected by a distinct smell. The most common type of fuel gas in current use is natural gas.

Biofuel can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel consisting of, or derived from biomass. Biomass can also be used directly for heating or power—known as biomass fuel. Biofuel can be produced from any carbon source that can be replenished rapidly e. Many different plants and plant-derived materials are used for biofuel manufacture. Perhaps the earliest fuel employed by humans is wood. Evidence shows controlled fire was used up to 1. It is unknown which hominid species first used fire, as both Australopithecus and an early species of Homo were present at the sites.

Recently biofuels have been developed for use in automotive transport for example Bioethanol and Biodiesel , but there is widespread public debate about how carbon efficient these fuels are. Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons , primarily coal and petroleum liquid petroleum or natural gas , formed from the fossilized remains of ancient plants and animals [12] by exposure to high heat and pressure in the absence of oxygen in the Earth 's crust over hundreds of millions of years. These latter sources are properly known as mineral fuels.

Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal , petroleum , and natural gas. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. Fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants [12] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years.

It was estimated by the Energy Information Administration that in primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made.

Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels-Cambridge University Press (2013)

So we must conserve these fuels and use them judiciously. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. A global movement toward the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs. The burning of fossil fuels produces around Fuels are a source of energy.

The amount of energy from different types of fuel depends on the stoichiometric ratio , the chemically correct air and fuel ratio to ensure complete combustion of fuel, and its specific energy , the energy per unit mass. Nuclear fuel is any material that is consumed to derive nuclear energy. Technically speaking, all matter can be a nuclear fuel because any element under the right conditions will release nuclear energy, [ dubious — discuss ] but the materials commonly referred to as nuclear fuels are those that will produce energy without being placed under extreme duress.

Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'burned' by nuclear fission or fusion to derive nuclear energy. Nuclear fuel can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects for example bundles composed of fuel rods composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating , or neutron reflecting materials.

Most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile elements that are capable of nuclear fission. When these fuels are struck by neutrons, they are in turn capable of emitting neutrons when they break apart. This makes possible a self-sustaining chain reaction that releases energy with a controlled rate in a nuclear reactor or with a very rapid uncontrolled rate in a nuclear weapon.

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The most common fissile nuclear fuels are uranium U and plutonium Pu. The actions of mining, refining, purifying, using, and ultimately disposing of nuclear fuel together make up the nuclear fuel cycle. Not all types of nuclear fuels create power from nuclear fission. Plutonium and some other elements are used to produce small amounts of nuclear power by radioactive decay in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and other types of atomic batteries.

Also, light nuclides such as tritium 3 H can be used as fuel for nuclear fusion. Nuclear fuel has the highest energy density of all practical fuel sources. The most common type of nuclear fuel used by humans is heavy fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear fission reactor ; nuclear fuel can refer to the material or to physical objects for example fuel bundles composed of fuel rods composed of the fuel material, perhaps mixed with structural, neutron moderating , or neutron reflecting materials.

The most common fissile nuclear fuels are U and Pu , and the actions of mining, refining, purifying, using, and ultimately disposing of these elements together make up the nuclear fuel cycle , which is important for its relevance to nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons. Fuels that produce energy by the process of nuclear fusion are currently not utilized by humans but are the main source of fuel for stars. Fusion fuels tend to be light elements such as hydrogen which will combine easily.

Energy is required to start fusion by raising temperature so high all materials would turn into plasma, and allow nuclei to collide and stick together with each other before repelling due to electric charge. This process is called fusion and it can give out energy. In stars that undergo nuclear fusion, fuel consists of atomic nuclei that can release energy by the absorption of a proton or neutron.

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  2. Le diable de Rome (Labyrinthes t. 171) (French Edition);
  3. Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels by Harold Schobert;
  4. Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering: Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels.

In most stars the fuel is provided by hydrogen, which can combine to form helium through the proton-proton chain reaction or by the CNO cycle. When the hydrogen fuel is exhausted, nuclear fusion can continue with progressively heavier elements, although the net energy released is lower because of the smaller difference in nuclear binding energy.

Once iron or nickel nuclei are produced, no further energy can be obtained by nuclear fusion as these have the highest nuclear binding energies. The elements then on use up energy instead of giving off energy when fused. Therefore, fusion stops and the star dies. In attempts by humans, fusion is only carried out with hydrogen isotope of 2 and 3 to form helium-4 as this reaction gives out the most net energy.

Electric confinement ITER , inertial confinement heating by laser and heating by strong electric currents are the popular methods used. Most transportation fuels are liquids, because vehicles usually require high energy density. This occurs naturally in liquids and solids. High energy density can also be provided by an internal combustion engine.

These engines require clean-burning fuels. The fuels that are easiest to burn cleanly are typically liquids and gases. Thus, liquids meet the requirements of being both energy-dense and clean-burning. In addition, liquids and gases can be pumped, which means handling is easily mechanized, and thus less laborious. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Fuel disambiguation. Main article: Solid fuel.

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Main article: Liquid fuel. Main article: Fuel gas. Main article: Biofuel. Main article: Fossil fuel.

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